Introduction to Careers in IT/CS

There is something for everyone when it comes to careers in CS/IT careers.  From the more practical applied roles of an Information Technology professional, to the math, physics and engineering of Computer Science, to the business side of management and administration of IT departments in organizations, to the people side of things in help desk support, and sales. [click for full description....]

-Computer Science is the study of computers and computing, including their theoretical and algorithmic foundations, physics and mathematics of hardware and software, and their uses for processing data.

-Software Engineering is the process of analyzing/understanding user needs; more importantly designing, constructing, and testing end user applications that will satisfy these needs through the use of software programming languages.

-Computer Engineering is the design and development of software and hardware components.  Further, embedding these components in other ‘machines’ and ‘systems’.  i.e. building networks to transfer data; develop ways to make computers solutions more efficient and effective.

-Information Technology is the use and management of computers to retrieve, store, transmit, and manipulate data, often in the service of business or organizational needs.

-Computer Systems Engineering is the design of integrated hardware and software solutions.  Plan – Develop – Test – Evaluate

-Data Science/Information Science is the development and application of technology tools and techniques to collect, manipulate, process, analyze, store, and distribute information. (Examples of careers in Data and Information Science include Data Scientist, Librarian, Big Data, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence).


8 career roles could be nested into the foundational areas in the Computer Science/Information Technology discipline:

1. Analyst

2. Architect

3. Scientist

4. Developer

5. Engineer

6. Programmer

7. Administrator

8. Specialist

The following are general definitions for each career role prevalent in industry.....

Analyst - A computer science analyst collects and analyzes the requirements for a new, revised, or update/upgraded system. They look for ways to help the organization operate more efficiently and effectively. May analyze business functions and come up with computer solutions to solve business problems.

Architect - A computer science architect may be responsible for defining the overall structure of a program, process, or system. As well, verifying and overseeing assignments relative to those programs, processes, or systems.

Scientist - A computer science scientist may conduct research involving experimentation and modelling.  A scientist may work as part of a research team with programmers, IT professionals, and mechanical, electrical or software engineers to solve problems and create new products. May also contribute with algorithms.

Developer - A computer science developer is an individual that builds and creates. He or she may debug, execute and/or contribute to the writing of the source code of an application or process as written by a programmer.  Takes code and software execution to next level. A developer role is much more creative and innovative.

Engineer - A computer science engineer will design elements that help computers operate. They may develop computer chips, create software programs that help computer systems run, or design software applications.  Typically engineers work closer with hardware than software-side to solve technical solutions that integrate hardware into a system or process.

Programmer - A computer science programmer is often tasked with designing and creating software programs, modifying source-code, writing system instructions, debugging, and efficiently maintaining systems. A programmer is given very specific things to do based on specific directions.  A programmer’s role is really not innovative.

Administrator - A computer science/information technology administrator is responsible for the management, upkeep, and configuration of a computer information systems.

Specialist - Most likely a very general position.  May take on a technical support role also.  Could also contribute with a specific skill that could be a very high level position within a company.

some others…..

Software Development Project Manager -

IT Project Manager -

Chief Information Officer and CIO Office Staff - Responsible for the design and implementation of the technology strategy of an organization, and interfacing with other members of the senior organizations non-technology management team members.



List of -

Job Titles/roles



and emerging technologies






Main Sections blocks to be added -

Career Pathways in CS/IT/DS (on the job learning/degrees/certifications)

Majors and Degree Programs in CS/IT

Certifications in CS/IT

Employers in CS/IT/DS


Job Sectors
 web development  enterprise architect  AI  cloud computing  IoT  cyber security  robotics  augmentation  informatics  virtual reality  machine learning  quantum computing  cognitive technology (neuro networks)  blockchain  biometrics  5G  serverless computing  3D printing others


Professor/Instructor of CS/IT/IS

AS Programs, community colleges, Technicians (though some is covered in repair and installation category)

Telecom/VOIP Technologist

Networking LAN/WAN

R and D Software and Hardware Developers Private Sector

User Interface Designers

Game Developers?