List of Majors in Biology, Biological Science and Biomedicine
Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the chemistry of living systems, their fundamental chemical substances and reactions, and their chemical pathways and information transfer systems, with particular reference to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Includes instruction in bio-organic chemistry, protein chemistry, bioanalytical chemistry, bioseparations, regulatory biochemistry, enzymology, hormonal chemistry, calorimetry, and research methods and equipment operation.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
A program of study that combines the biological sub-disciplines of biochemistry and molecular biology. Includes instruction in general biology, general and organic chemistry, physics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, microbiology, genetics, and cellular biology.
A program that focuses on the application of physics principles to the scientific study of the mechanisms of biological processes and assemblies at all levels of complexity. Includes instruction in research methods and equipment operation and applications to subjects such as bioenergetics, biophysical theory and modeling, electrophysics, membrane biology, channels, receptors and transporters, contractility and muscle function, protein shaping and folding, molecular and supramolecular structures and assemblies, and computational science.
A program that focuses on the scientific relationship of physiological function to the structure and actions of macromolecules and supramolecular assemblies such as multienzyme complexes, membranes, and viruses. Includes instruction in the chemical mechanisms of regulation and catalysis, protein synthesis and other syntheses, and biomolecular chemical reactions.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the structure and function of biological macromolecules and the role of molecular constituents and mechanisms in supramolecular assemblies and cells. Includes instruction in such topics as molecular signaling and transduction, regulation of cell growth, enzyme substrates and mechanisms of enzyme action, DNA-protein interaction, and applications to fields such as biotechnology, genetics, cell biology, and physiology.
A scientific program that focuses on the dynamics and interactions of macromolecules and other three-dimensional ultrastructures, the architecture of supramolecular structures, and energy transfer in biomolecular systems. Includes instruction in energy transduction, structural dynamics, mechanisms of electron and proton transfer in biological systems, bioinformatics, automated analysis, and specialized research techniques.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the effects of light energy on living organisms, the manufacture and processing of luminescence by organisms, and the uses of light in biological research. Includes instruction in bioluminescence, chronobiology, photomedicine, environmental photobiology, organic photochemistry, photomorphogenesis, photoreceptors and photosensitization, molecular mechanics of photosynthesis, phototechnology, vision, ultraviolet radiation, radiation physics, and spectral research methods.
A program that focuses on the effects of radiation on organisms and biological systems. Includes instruction in particle physics, ionization, and biophysics of radiation perturbations, cellular and organismic repair systems, genetic and pathological effects of radiation, and the measurement of radiation dosages.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of submolecular and molecular components and assemblies of living systems and how they are organized into functional units such as cells and anatomic tissues. Includes instruction in glycoprotein, carbohydrate, protein, and nucleic acid structures and chemistry; cytoskeletal structure; nuclear and intracellular structures; molecular recognition; molecular chaperones; transcription and folding; multicellular organization; microtubules and microfilaments; cell differentiation; immunophysics; and DNA sequencing.
Biology/Biological Sciences, General
A general program of biology at the introductory, basic level or a program in biology or the biological sciences that is undifferentiated as to title or content. Includes instruction in general biology and programs covering a variety of biological specializations.
Biomedical Sciences, General
A general, program that focuses on the integrative scientific study of biological issues related to health and medicine, or a program in one or more of the biomedical sciences that is undifferentiated as to title. Includes instruction in any of the basic medical sciences at the research level; biological science research in biomedical faculties; and general studies encompassing a variety of the biomedical disciplines.
Biomathematics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology
A program that focuses on the application of computer-based technologies and services to biological, biomedical, and biotechnology research. Includes instruction in algorithms, network architecture, principles of software design, human interface design, usability studies, search strategies, database management and data mining, digital image processing, computer graphics and animation, CAD, computer programming, and applications to experimental design and analysis and to specific quantitative, modeling, and analytical studies in the various biological specializations.
A program that focuses on the application of statistics and other computational methods to the study of problems in the biological sciences and related fields in agriculture and natural resources. Includes instruction in computational biology, mathematical statistics, matrix algebra, applied calculus, experimental design, linear modeling, sampling theory, stochastic processes, spatial and temporal analysis, longitudinal analysis, sparse/unbalanced data and complex error, and applications to such topics as population genetics, animal breeding, forest genetics, population dynamics, wildlife biometry, ecology, and agricultural and natural resource management.
A program that focuses on the application of descriptive and inferential statistics to biomedical research and clinical, public health, and industrial issues related to human populations. Includes instruction in mathematical statistics, modeling, clinical trials methodology, disease and survival analysis, longitudinal analysis, missing data analysis, spatial analysis, computer tomography, biostatistics consulting, and applications to such topics as genetics, oncology, pharmacokinetics, physiology, neurobiology, and biophysics.
A program that focuses on computational theoretical approaches to understanding biological systems, including computational models of biological processes, computational management of large-scale projects, database development and data-algorithm development, and high-performance computing, as well as statistical and mathematical analyses.
A program that focuses on the application of the biological sciences, biochemistry, and genetics to the preparation of new and enhanced agricultural, environmental, clinical, and industrial products, including the commercial exploitation of microbes, plants, and animals. Includes instruction in bioinformatics, gene identification, phylogenetics and comparative genomics, bioinorganic chemistry, immunoassaying, DNA sequencing, xenotransplantation, genetic engineering, industrial microbiology, drug and biologic development, enzyme-based production processes, patent law, biotechnology management and marketing, applicable regulations, and biotechnology ethics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of plants, related microbial organisms, and plant habitats and ecosystem relations. Includes instruction in plant anatomy and structure, phytochemistry, cytology, plant genetics, plant morphology and physiology, plant ecology, plant taxonomy and systematics, paleobotany, and applications of biophysics and molecular biology.
Plant Molecular Biology
A program that focuses on the application of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics to the study of biomolecular structures, functions, and processes specific to plants and plant substances. Includes instruction in the biochemistry of plant cells, nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions, molecular cytostructures, photosynthesis, plant molecular genetics, and the molecular biology of plant diseases.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of plant diseases and plant health, and the development of disease control mechanisms. Includes instruction in plant anatomy and physiology, pathogenesis, molecular plant virology, molecular genetics, bacterial epidemiology, causal agent identification, host/agent interactions, disease resistance and response mechanisms, developing plant disease treatments, disease prevention, and disease physiology and control.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of plant internal dynamics and systems, plant-environment interaction, and plant life cycles and processes. Includes instruction in cell and molecular biology; plant nutrition; plant respiration; plant growth, behavior, and reproduction; photosynthesis; plant systemics; and ecology.
Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences
A program that focuses on the scientific study of organ systems, tissue structures, and whole bodies together with their cellular and structural components and dynamics. Includes instruction in cell biology and histology, structural biology, molecular mechanics, regional and gross anatomy, embryology, neuroanatomy, endocrinology and secretory dynamics, and applications to such topics as aging and disease conditions.
Cell Biology and Anatomy
An integrated, combined program that focuses on the scientific study of cell structure, function, and dynamics within the context of organismic, regional, and gross anatomical systems. Includes instruction in molecular biology, cell biology and histology, structural biology, anatomy, embryology, endocrinology, and applications to specific systems, diseases, defects, and processes.
Cell/Cellular and Molecular Biology
An integrated, combined program that focuses on the scientific study of cells, cellular systems, and the molecular basis of cell structure and function. Includes instruction in cell biology, cell chemistry, molecular biology, biophysics, and structural biology.
Cell/Cellular Biology and Histology
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the structure, function, and regulation of cells as individual units and as components of larger systems. Includes instruction in cell chemistry, cellular dynamics, cellular replication and reproduction, cell anatomy, membrane function, organelles, cell adhesion and extracellular matrices, cell dynamics and motility, meiosis and mytosis, signal transduction, regulation, recognition and defense mechanisms, the cell cycle, cell metabolism and respiration, gene expression, and studies of cell types and characteristics.
Developmental Biology and Embryology
A program that focuses on the scientific study of embryology, development, and growth of animals and human beings. Includes instruction in fertilization, oogenesis, histogenesis, gastrulation, and cell differentiation; embryological development including organ and pattern formation, morphogenesis, gene regulation, cell lineage, and fate maps; disease and defect studies; transgenic and evolutionary models of growth and development; and applications to specific organisms and phyla.
Ecology, Evolution, Systematics, and Population Biology
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the ecology and behavior of microbes, plants, and animals inhabiting inland fresh waters such as lakes, ponds, rivers, creeks, estuaries, and wetlands. Includes instruction in geology and hydrology; aquatic ecosystems; microbiology; mycology; botany; ichthyology; mammalogy; population biology and biodiversity; studies of specific species, phyla, and habitats; and applications to fields such as natural resources conservation, fisheries science, and biotechnology.
A program that focuses on the application of the biological sciences to the specific problems of biodiversity, species preservation, ecological sustainability, and habitat fragmentation in the face of advancing human social, economic, and industrial pressures. Includes instruction in ecology, environmental science, biological systems, extinction theory, human-animal and human-plant interaction, ecosystem science and management, wetland conservation, field biology, forest and wildlife biology, and natural history.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the relationships and interactions of small-scale biological systems, such as organisms, to each other, to complex and whole systems, and to the physical and other non-biological aspects of their environments. Includes instruction in biogeochemistry; landscape and/or marine/aquatic dynamics; decomposition; global and regional elemental budgets; biotic and abiotic regulation of nutrient cycles; ecophysiology; ecosystem resilience, disturbance, and succession; community and habitat dynamics; organismal interactions (co-evolution, competition, predation); paleoecology; and evolutionary ecology.
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the relationships and interactions across levels of biological organization–genes and genomes, organisms, species, and ecosystems–and how these change over time, including the origins and history of species, the processes by which biodiversity has evolved, and the ecological context in which this evolution takes place. Includes instruction in animal, plant, population, functional, evolutionary, and ecosystem ecology; ecological and evolutionary genetics; molecular evolution; population and conservation biology; animal and plant diversity; biometry; and scientific and research ethics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the origins, functions, relationships, interactions, and natural history of living populations, communities, species, and ecosystems in relation to dynamic environmental processes. Includes instruction in biodiversity, molecular genetic and genomic evolution, mesoscale ecology, computational biology and modeling, conservation biology, local and global environmental change, and restoration ecology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of disease, disability, and trauma patterns within and across populations and the development of health management mechanisms to prevent and control disease outbreaks and injurious behaviors. Includes instruction in biostatistics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, disease and injury determinants, genetic disease and disability factors, behavioral studies, health services research, environmental disease and injury factors, and population studies.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the genetic, developmental, functional, and morphological patterns and processes, and theoretical principles; and the emergence and mutation of organisms over time. Includes instruction in molecular and morphological systematics; genetics and development; evolutionary transformation; paleobiology and paleontology; morphogenesis; mutation; locomotor, biomechanical and craniodental form and function; evolutionary theory; and systematic biology.
Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the ecology and behavior of microbes, plants, and animals inhabiting oceans, coastal waters, and saltwater wetlands and their interactions with the physical environment. Includes instruction in chemical, physical, and geological oceanography; molecular, cellular, and biochemical studies; marine microbiology; marine botany; ichthyology; mammalogy; marine population dynamics and biodiversity; reproductive biology; studies of specific species, phyla, habitats, and ecosystems; marine paleocology and palentology; and applications to fields such as fisheries science and biotechnology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the natural history, life cycle behavior, and ecosystem dynamics of single species and multi-species communities, and the patterns and causes of diversity within and among such populations. Includes instruction in biostatistics, population dynamics, population and quantitative genetics, RNA and DNA sequences, genomics, evolutionary ecology, natural adaptation and hybridization, geographic differentiation, life history and life cycle studies, and animal and plant demography.
Systematic Biology/Biological Systematics
A program that focuses on the theoretical and empirical study of the principles and processes underlying the origin and maintenance of biological taxonomic diversity; related biogeographical and evolutionary patterns; and studies of the origin, diversification, distribution, and extinction of species and lineages. Includes instruction in phylogenetic analysis, structural development and molecular evolution, classification and taxonomic theory, biological nomenclature, taxonomic assignment, evolutionary theory, biological surveys and inventories, computer modeling, and database building.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the genetics of multicellular animal life forms from the experimental, comparative, and clinical (veterinary and medical) viewpoints. Includes instruction in molecular genetics, gene expression, gene regulation, genomics, epigenetic phenomena, DNA recombination and repair, genetic interactions at the microbial and higher levels, and molecular evolution.
A general program that focuses on the scientific study of the organization, recombination, function, regulation, and transmission of heritable information in biological organisms at all levels of complexity. Includes instruction in Mendelian genetics, mechanisms of gene regulation, chromosome structure and replication, epigenetic phenomena, DNA repair and recombination, sex determination, genetic interactions between genomes, and molecular evolution.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of whole genome sequences and patterns of gene expression. Includes instruction in molecular and cellular biology, genetics, protein technologies, genomic sciences and techniques, bioinformatics, and scientific and research ethics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of human genetics from the standpoint of medical applications such as clinical diagnosis, genetic engineering and therapy, transplantation, and the study of genetic diseases and disabilities and their defense. Includes instruction in human molecular genetics; genetic factors causing disease; changes in gene expression during development, differentiation, and pathogenesis; recombinant DNA; gene therapy; clinical genetics; genetic epidemiology; immunogenetics; cytogenetics; and genetics of specific disorders and diseases.
Microbial and Eukaryotic Genetics
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the genetics of viruses, infectious agents, organelles, nuclear genomes, eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotic organisms. Includes instruction in molecular genetics and evolution, parasitic and symbiotic interaction at the genetic level, epigenetic phenomena, microbial interactions, and genomics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of genetic structures and mechanisms of organisms, including bacteria, phages, and viruses. Includes instruction in the replication, expression, transfer, structure, maintenance, and stability of heritable information in DNA, RNA, and proteins; the regulation of these processes; and neurogenetics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the genetics of multicellular plants and fungi as related to botanical research as well as to applications in comparative genetics, ecology and evolutionary studies, clinical studies, and industrial research. Includes instruction in molecular genetics, gene expression, gene regulation, genomics, epigenetic phenomena, DNA recombination and repair, genetic interactions at the microbial and higher levels, and molecular evolution.
Microbiological Sciences and Immunology
A program that focuses on scientific study of the biological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of disease, host-pathogen interactions, and host response to disease. Includes instruction in antigen and antibody structure and function, effector mechanisms, receptors, histocompatibility, host-pathogen recognition, disease modeling, autoimmune systems, antibody formation, cytotoxic responses, regulation of immune response, virulence determinants, intercellular signaling, immunosuppression, immunotherapy, immunogenetics, disease markers, transplantation, antibody humanization, and microbial pathogenesis.
Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology
A program that focuses on the scientific study of pathogenic bacteria that are significant factors in causing or facilitating human disease. Includes instruction in the pathogenesis of bacterial diseases, bacterial genetics and physiology, bacterial anatomy and structure, antigens, bacterial reproduction, bacterial adhesion, phagocytes, and the identification of new or mutated bacteria and bacterial agents.
Microbiology and Immunology
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the microorganisms that cause disease and the host immune response to them. Includes instruction in microbiology, microbial genetics, molecular virology, pathogenic bacteriology, disease mechanisms, immunology, immunogenetics, autoimmunity, and bioinformatics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of unicellular organisms and colonies, and subcellular genetic matter and their ecological interactions with human beings and other life. Includes instruction in microbial genetics, cell biology, cell physiology, virology, pathogenic microbiology, environmental microbiology, immunology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and laboratory methods including microscopy.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of fungi, lichenous plants, eukaryotic microorganisms, myxomycetes, and plasmodiophorales and their relationship to diseases in higher plants, animals, and human beings as well as to pharmacologically useful products. Includes instruction in cell and molecular biology; histopathology; fungal growth and behavior; environmental mycology; antifungal sensitivity; mycoses; pathogens and pathogenesis; pharmacological properties; and computer and laboratory research methods.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of biological organisms living in ecologically exploitative and competitive relationships with host organisms, and the role of parasites in causing injury, disease, and environmental damage. Includes instruction in vector biology, immunoparasitology, medical parasitology, molecular biology of parasitical associations, veterinary and comparative parasitology, chemotherapeutics, and ecological and systematic parasitology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of subcellular pieces of genetic material, called viruses, that inhabit living cells in parasitical relationships and their role in disease. Includes instruction in virus taxonomy and systematics, viral structures, viral genetics, prions, virus/host cell interaction, viral pathogenesis, and applications to specific topics such as cancer biology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the molecular and cellular basis of disease, and the application of this knowledge to the development of new clinical and diagnostic tools, medications, and therapies. Includes instruction in cell biology, molecular biology, physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, genetics, pathology, molecular immunology, research and quantitative methods, and biomedical research computing.
Neurobiology and Neurosciences
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the structure of the central and peripheral nervous system in vertebrates or the nervous system of invertebrates. Includes instruction in cellular and circuit anatomy, mapping of neuronal pathways, anatomical distribution and mapping of neuronal signaling molecules and their receptors, and the anatomical basis of central nervous system diseases and disorders.
Neurobiology and Anatomy
A program that focuses on the scientific study of structure and function of the brain and central nervous system. Includes instruction in the molecular biology of neural cells and circuits, cognitive biology, neural transmitters and receptors, neuronal signaling and control of physical function, membrane and synapse structure and communication, autonomic function, nervous system circuitry and mapping, anatomy of neurological disease and disorders, brain studies, protein chemistry, and computational biology.
Neurobiology and Behavior
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the structure and function of the central and peripheral nervous system in vertebrates and invertebrates as it relates to control of behavior. Includes instruction in neuronal systems and circuits, higher level studies of behavior and cognition, computational neurobiology, and behavioral manifestations of central nervous system diseases and disorders.
A program that focuses on the interdisciplinary scientific study of the molecular, structural, physiologic, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of the brain and nervous system. Includes instruction in molecular and cellular neuroscience, brain science, anatomy and physiology of the central nervous system, molecular and biochemical bases of information processing, behavioral neuroscience, biology of neuropsychiatric disorders, and applications to the clinical sciences and biomedical engineering.
Pharmacology and Toxicology
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the health effects associated with exposure to toxic chemicals and systems occurring in the natural, work, and living environments; the management of environmental toxins and toxicity; and the development of protections for humans, animals, and plants. Includes instruction in applied ecology; microbiology; toxin transport, fate, and degradation; dermal toxicology; reproductive and genetic toxicology; atmospheric and environmental chemistry; metals toxicology; environmental mutagens and biotransformation; nutrient interaction; chemical sensitivity, disorders, and disease; risk assessment; animal waste management; environmental health; and hazardous materials management.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the biochemical and biophysical characteristics of drugs at the molecular level and their interaction with, and effects on, biological macromolecules and cellular structures and processes. Includes instruction in molecular biology and biophysics; pharmacology of signal transduction, transmitters, and protein synthesis and release; receptors, protein interaction and binding; drug discovery and recognition; molecular toxicology; drug design; pharmacodynamics; developmental genetics; and studies of therapeutic strategies.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the genetic determinants of susceptibility to external pollutants and poisons; the interaction of toxic agents with biological systems at the molecular and cellular levels; and the development of countermeasures and treatments. Includes instruction in pharmacogenetics, biomolecular structure, gene expression and regulation, transgenic modeling, toxic events signaling, transcriptional activation, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, pulmonary toxicology, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, risk assessment, molecular dosimetry, and studies of specific toxins and treatment therapies.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of drugs that modify the function of the brain and central nervous system, the effects of such drugs on health, disease, perception, motor action, and behavior; and the development of countermeasures and treatment therapies. Includes instruction in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, behavioral neuroscience, neurobiochemistry, neuropathology, the mechanisms of brain function, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, and studies of specific drugs and drug therapies.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of drug interactions on biological systems and organisms and the sources, chemical properties, biological effects, and therapeutic uses of drugs. Includes instruction in pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, drug therapeutics, drug action, bodily responses to drug events, biochemical proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, cell biology, medicinal chemistry, and studies of specific drugs and drug interactions.
Pharmacology and Toxicology
A program with an integrated, combined approach to the study of pharmacological and toxicological issues in biology and the biomedical sciences. Includes instruction in topics such as solvents, xenobiotic metabolism, chemical toxicity, neurotoxicology, immunopharmacology, biotransformation, tissue culture and in vitro studies, biomolecular analysis, bioactivation and inactivation, enzyme regulation, chemoprevention and chemotherapy, industrial and chemical studies, radiation health, and bioinformatics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of poisons and other biohazards; their interactions with organisms and their food and respiratory systems; and their prevention, management, and counteraction. Includes instruction in toxicological biochemistry, toxic agents and transporters, toxin fate, toxicokinetics and metabolism, toxin classification, molecular toxic mechanisms, extracellular matrices and cell function, bacterial pathogenesis and mutagenesis, pathophysiology and apoptosis, cell stress and injury, studies of specific toxins, and studies of specific organ systems and physiological functions in relation to toxicological problems.
Physiology, Pathology and Related Sciences
Aerospace Physiology and Medicine
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the physiological processes involved in low and high-altitude flight and living in space and related low-pressure and low-gravity environments, including sensorimotor interactions, response mechanisms, and the effects of injury, disease, and disability. Includes instruction in anatomy, molecular and cellular basis of muscle contraction, fuel utilization, neurophysiology of motor mechanics, systemic physiological responses (respiration, blood flow, endocrine secretions, and others), fatigue and exhaustion, systemic environmental pathologies, muscle and body training, physiology of specific exercises and activities, physiology of injury, and the effects of disabilities and disease.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the structure and functioning of the heart, vascular system, and blood in animals and human beings and the disorders and diseases associated with the cardiovascular system. Includes instruction in cardiovascular physiology, blood physiology, vasculature, vascular metabolism, neural control of cardiovascular function, microvascular permeability and membrane transport, cardiac contraction mechanisms, homeostasis, and applications to topics such as arteriosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, vascular remodeling, transplantation, transfusion, and pacemakers and artificial organs.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of physiological processes operating within and among cells, and intracellular communication and behavior, in the context of larger systems and whole organisms. Includes instruction in cell and molecular biology, molecular physiology, cell cycle control, signal transduction, protein structure, membrane biochemistry and structure, ion channel physics, cell respiration and digestion, secretory functions, cell adhesion and communication, information encoding and decoding, and the relation of cell physiology to tissue, organ, and organismic functioning.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the composition, manufacture, and secretion of protein compounds by cells and glands and the role of endocrine substances in bodily processes. Includes instruction in protein chemistry, protein secretion, membrane biogenesis and transfer methods, cellular communication, gene and cell regulation, cytochemistry, fractionation, radioautography, and applications such as neuroendocrinology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the physiological processes involved in physical or motor activity, including sensorimotor interactions, response mechanisms, and the effects of injury, disease, and disability. Includes instruction in muscular and skeletal anatomy; molecular and cellular basis of muscle contraction; fuel utilization; neurophysiology of motor mechanics; systemic physiological responses (respiration, blood flow, endocrine secretions, and others); fatigue and exhaustion; muscle and body training; physiology of specific exercises and activities; physiology of injury; and the effects of disabilities and disease.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of dynamic interactive processes and biochemical communications at the subcellular level. Includes instruction in ion channels and transporters, molecular signaling pathways, endocrine control and regulation, genetic information transfer, homeostasis and molecular control systems, electrophysiology and sensory mechanisms, protein synthesis, and applicable research methods and technologies.
Oncology and Cancer Biology
A program that focuses on the scientific study of carcinogens; the onset of malignancy in cells, tissues, blood, and organs; the genetics of cancer; the anatomy and physiology of cancer cells; and the study of cancer behaviors and treatments. Includes instruction in gene expression; oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes; viral genes and cancer proliferation; regulation of signal transduction; cancer proteins; hormonal and growth factors in cancer cells; tumor promotion, progression, and metastasis; carcinogen receptors and metabolism; carcinogen ecology; immunological targeting; and studies of genetic, chemical, radiologic and other treatment therapies.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the expression, initiation, maintenance and progression of tissue injury and disease, including death, and the relationship of pathogenesis to fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms. Includes instruction in immunology, microbiology, gene expression, inflammation, cell injury, apoptosis, immunopathology, molecular markers of disease and toxins, neoplasia, growth regulation, and organ- and system-specific investigations.
A general program that focuses on the scientific study of the functional dynamics, morphology, and biochemical and biophysical communications within organisms and between living systems at all levels of complexity and integration. Includes instruction in reproduction, growth, hormonal action, vascular function, respiration, digestion, sensory perception and processing, sensorimotor integration, signal encoding and conveyance, homeostasis, physical function and malfunction, evolutionary physiology, and disease processes.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of reproductive processes and biogenesis in animals and human beings. Includes instruction in reproductive ecology and behavior, reproductive system physiology, endocrinology, developmental biology, neuroendocrinology, evolution and types of reproductive systems, reproductive genetics, physiopathology of reproductive processes, and applications of molecular biology and biophysics to the study of reproductive physiology.
Vision Science/Physiological Optics
A program that focuses on the scientific study of vision, visual processes, and related phenomena and clinical research and treatment modalities. Includes instruction in ocular anatomy and physiology, microbiology of the eye, electrophysiology, neurophysiology, corneal physiology, photochemistry, psychophysics, visual biophysics and motor systems, sensory mechanisms and photoreception, eye circulation and metabolism, geometric and physical optics, ocular development across the life span, visual stimuli and perception, color vision, eye motility, biometrics and measurement techniques, visual pathology, and environmental issues.
Animal Behavior and Ethology
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the psychological and neurological bases of animal sensation, perception, cognition, behavior, and behavioral interactions within and outside the species. Includes instruction in ethology, behavioral neuroscience, neurobiology, behavioral evolution, cognition and sensory perception, motivators, learning and instinct, hormonal controls, reproductive and developmental biology, community ecology, functional behavior, and applications to specific behaviors and patterns as well as to specific phyla and species.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of function, morphology, regulation, and intercellular communications and dynamics within vertebrate and invertebrate in animal species, with comparative applications to homo sapiens and its relatives and antecedents. Includes instruction in reproduction, growth, lactation, digestion, performance, behavioral adaptation, sensory perception, motor action, phylogenetics, biotic and abiotic function, membrane biology, and related aspects of biochemistry and biophysics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of insect species and populations in respect of their life cycles, morphology, genetics, physiology, ecology, taxonomy, population dynamics, and environmental and economic impacts. Includes instruction in applicable biological and physical sciences as well as insect toxicology and the biochemical control of insect populations.
A program that focuses on the application of biological principles to the study of vertebrate wildlife, wildlife habitats, and related ecosystems in remote and urban areas. Includes instruction in animal ecology; adaptational biology; urban ecosystems; natural and artificial habitat management; limnology; wildlife pathology; and vertebrate zoological specializations such as mammalogy, herpetology, ichthyology, ornithology, and others.
A general program that focuses on the scientific study of the biology of animal species and phyla, with reference to their molecular and cellular systems, anatomy, physiology, and behavior. Includes instruction in molecular and cell biology, microbiology, anatomy and physiology, ecology and behavior, evolutionary biology, and applications to specific species and phyla.